At the peak of the pandemic when most countries had embraced the lockdown protocol that triggered an overwhelming patronage of online alternatives for business, leisure, and healthcare, every personal and corporate data on the cyberspace became a potential target of cybercrime, as malicious hackers took advantage of and exploited each good-intentioned COVID-19 intervention to deepen their exploits. Cyber risks that arose from the adoption of lockdown interventions and social distancing measures included cyber espionage, email phishing, ransomware, and many more. Chapter four presents a comprehensive review of threats which hackers exploited during the pandemic, including exposures, human factor, and technical vulnerabilities. The chapter particularly examines 21 specific cyber threats alongside their impacts on data privacy, corporate reputation, and revenue loss.

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